NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS – (Continued)
Equinix derives more than 90% of its revenues from recurring revenue streams, consisting primarily of (1) colocation, which includes the licensing of cabinet space and power; (2) interconnection offerings, such as cross connects and Equinix Exchange ports; (3) managed infrastructure solutions and (4) other revenues consisting of rental income from tenants or subtenants. The remainder of the Company’s revenues are from non-recurring revenue streams, such as installation revenues, professional services, contract settlements and equipment sales. Revenues are recognized when control of these products and services is transferred to its customers, in an amount that reflects the consideration it expects to be entitled to in exchange for the products and services. Revenues by service lines and geographic areas are included in segment information (see Note 11).
Revenues from recurring revenue streams are generally billed monthly and recognized ratably over the term of the contract, generally one to three years for IBX data center colocation customers. Non-recurring installation fees, although generally paid upfront upon installation, are deferred and recognized ratably over the contract term. Professional service fees and equipment sales are recognized in the period when the services were provided. For the contracts with customers that contain multiple performance obligations, the Company accounts for individual performance obligations separately if they are distinct or as a series of distinct obligations if the individual performance obligations meet the series criteria. Determining whether products and services are considered distinct performance obligations that should be accounted for separately versus together may require significant judgment. The transaction price is allocated to the separate performance obligation on a relative standalone selling price basis. The standalone selling price is determined based on overall pricing objectives, taking into consideration market conditions, geographic locations and other factors. Other judgments include determining if any variable consideration should be included in the total contract value of the arrangement such as price increases.
Revenue is generally recognized on a gross basis in accordance with the accounting standard related to reporting revenue on a gross basis as a principal versus on a net basis as an agent, as the Company is primarily responsible for fulfilling the contract, bears inventory risk and has discretion in establishing the price when selling to the customer. To the extent the Company does not meet the criteria for recognizing revenue on a gross basis, the Company records the revenue on a net basis. Revenue from contract settlements, when a customer wishes to terminate their contract early, is generally treated as a contract modification and recognized ratably over the remaining term of the contract, if any.
The Company guarantees certain service levels, such as uptime, as outlined in individual customer contracts. If these service levels are not achieved due to any failure of the physical infrastructure or offerings, or in the event of certain instances of damage to customer infrastructure within the Company’s IBX data centers, the Company would reduce revenue for any credits or cash payments given to the customer. Historically, these credits and cash payments have generally not been significant.
As a result of certain customer agreements being priced in currencies different from the functional currencies of the parties involved, under applicable accounting rules, the Company is deemed to have foreign currency forward contracts embedded in these contracts. The Company assessed these embedded contracts and concluded them to be foreign currency embedded derivatives (see Note 5). These instruments are separated from their host contracts and held on the Company’s condensed consolidated balance sheet at their fair value. The majority of these foreign currency embedded derivatives arise in certain of the Company’s subsidiaries where the local currency is the subsidiary’s functional currency and the customer contract is denominated in the U.S. dollar. Changes in their fair values are recognized within revenues in the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of operations.